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The Initiative for Open Citations (I4OC) brings together publishers and researchers to “promote the unrestricted availability of scholarly citation data.” This collaborative endeavor has encouraged several publishers—including the Royal Society of Chemistry, Springer Nature, Taylor & Francis, and Wiley—to publicly release their reference metadata. At the beginning of the initiative, only 1% of the citation metadata collected annually by Crossref was publicly available. As of June, 2017, near...

In 1963, Derek de Solla Price published a “prologue to the science of science” in his much lauded work, Big Science, Little Science. Price, a British physicist and historian of science—called for a field that would turn “the tools of science on science itself”. He demonstrated the utility of a quantitative approach to science studies for understanding the progress, as well as the structural and political properties, of science. In that same year, Eugene Garfield released the first Science Citati...

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